Most Popular Programming Languages to Learn in 2023

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Most Popular Programming Languages to Learn in 2023

You are here to know about the Most Popular Programming Languages to Learn in 2023.

What is a Programming Language?

A programming language is a way for programmers (developers) to communicate with computers. Programming languages consist of a set of rules that allows string values to be converted into various ways of generating machine code, or, in the case of visual programming languages, graphical elements.Generally speaking, a program is a set of instructions written in a particular language (C, C++, Java, Python) to achieve a particular task.

Most Popular Programming Languages to Learn in 2023

Most Popular Programming Languages to Learn in 2023

What Are the Best Programming Languages to Learn in 2023?

What coding and programming language should i learn? JavaScript and Python, two of the most popular languages in the startup industry, are in high demand. Most startups use Python-based backend frameworks such as Django (Python), Flask (Python), and NodeJS (JavaScript). These languages are also considered to be the best programming languages to learn for beginners.

Below is a list of the most popular programming languages that will be in demand in 2023.

1. Javascript

JavaScript is a high-level programming language that is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web. It is used as a client-side programming language by 97.8 percent of all websites. JavaScript was originally used only to develop web browsers, but they are now used for server-side website deployments and non-web browser applications as well.

Javascript was created in 1995 and was initially known as LiveScript. However, Java was a very popular language at that time, so it was advertised as a “younger brother” of Java. As it evolved over time, JavaScript became a fully independent language. Nowadays, JavaScript is often confused with Java, and although there are some similarities between them, the two languages are distinct.

Javascript is the most popular programming language in the world and is in high demand among various organizations. The average Java developer earns around $112,152 each year.

Level: Beginner to Intermediate
Skills Needed: HTML and CSS to define the content and layout of web pages
Platform: Cross-platform (desktop, mobile, web)
Popularity Among Programmers: The most popular programming language in the world
  • Easy to learn and implement
  • Used everywhere on the web
  • Can run immediately within the client-side browser
  • Reduces the demand on the website server
Downsides: Can sometimes be interpreted differently by different browsers which makes it difficult to write cross-browser code.
Degree of Use: Widely used; highly applicable
Annual Salary Projection: $112,152

2. Python

Python is one of the most popular programming languages today and is easy for beginners to learn because of its readability. It is a free, open-source programming language with extensive support modules and community development, easy integration with web services, user-friendly data structures, and GUI-based desktop applications. It is a popular programming language for machine learning and deep learning applications.

Python is used to develop 2D imaging and 3D animation packages like Blender, Inkscape, and Autodesk. It has also been used to create popular video games, including Civilization IV, Vegas Trike, and Toontown. Python is used for scientific and computational applications like FreeCAD and Abacus and by popular websites like YouTube, Quora, Pinterest, and Instagram. Python developers earn average annual salaries of about $109,092.

Level: Beginner – Python enables a beginner to become productive quickly
Skills Needed: Problem-solving, abstract thinking
Platform: Web, Desktop
Popularity Among Programmers: Becoming continuously more popular
  • Flexible
  • Naturally/Intuitively readable
  • Highly regarded official tutorials and documentation
  • Scripted as opposed to compiled
Downsides: Doesn’t start with programming basics (known to abstract too many important basic concepts)
Popularity: Becoming continuously more popular both in technical education and business uses
Degree of Use: Coding skills widely used; popular in both technical education and business use
Annual Salary Projection: $109,092

3. Go

Go was developed by Google in 2007 for APIs and web applications. Go has recently become one of the fastest-growing programming languages due to its simplicity, as well as its ability to handle multicore and networked systems and massive codebases.

Go, also known as Golang, was created to meet the needs of programmers working on large projects. It has gained popularity among many large IT companies thanks to its simple and modern structure and syntax familiarity. Companies using Go as their programming language include Google, Uber, Twitch, Dropbox, among many others. Go is also gaining in popularity among data scientists because of its agility and performance.

Go developers can earn an average annual salary of $141,654, and hitting up to $261,000.

Level: Beginner to intermediate
Skills Needed: Easy to learn if you already know at least one other programming language; otherwise, you just need patience and a willingness to learn.
Platform: Cross-platform, mainly desktop
Popularity Among Programmers: Not as popular as Java or Python, but it has been increasing in popularity
  • Widely considered a “minimalist” language
  • Easy to learn
  • Transparent code
  • Compatible
  • Fast
Downsides: No generics (which means you may end up writing more code than you would in other languages); very little library support; Go developer community is not very robust or supportive
Degree of Use: Widely used, particular for Google applications (created at Google)
Annual Salary Projection: $141,654


4. Java

Java is one of the most popular programming languages used today.

Owned by Oracle Corporation, this general-purpose programming language with its object-oriented structure has become a standard for applications that can be used regardless of platform (e.g., Mac, Windows, Android, iOS, etc.) because of its Write Once, Run Anywhere (WORA) capabilities. As a result, Java is recognized for its portability across platforms, from mainframe data centers to smartphones. Today there are more than 3 billion devices running applications built with Java.

Java is widely used in web and application development as well as big data. Java is also used on the backend of several popular websites, including Google, Amazon, Twitter, and YouTube. It is also extensively used in hundreds of applications. New Java frameworks like Spring, Struts, and Hibernate are also very popular. With millions of Java developers worldwide, there are hundreds of ways to learn Java. Also, Java programmers have an extensive online community and support each other to solve problems.

Java is a more complex language to learn, but experienced developers with Java coding skills are in high demand. The average Java developer earns around $109,225 each year.

Level: Intermediate
Skills Needed: Problem-solving, knowledge of the object-oriented structure
Platform: Web, Mobile, Desktop
Popularity Among Programmers: One of the world’s most popular; high demand
  • Regarded as a good start for learning to think like a programmer and gain coding skills
  • You’ll be able to access/manipulate the most important computer functions, like the file system, graphics, and sound for any fairly sophisticated and modern program that can run on any operating system.
Downsides: Lots of new vocabulary to learn; a higher-level language
Degree of Use: Widely used; highly applicable
Annual Salary Projection: $109,225
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5. Kotlin

Kotlin is a general-purpose programming language originally developed and unveiled as Project Kotlin by JetBrains in 2011. The first version was officially released in 2016. It is interoperable with Java and supports functional programming languages.

Kotlin is used extensively for Android apps, web application, desktop application, and server-side application development. Kotlin was built to be better than Java, and people who use this language are convinced. Most of the Google applications are based on Kotlin. Some companies using Kotlin as their programming language include Coursera, Pinterest, PostMates among many others.

Kotlin developers earn an average of $136,000 a year, with the potential to earn up to $171,500.

Level: Intermediate to advanced
Skills Needed: Prior experience with programming languages, particularly Java
Platform: Web, Mobile, Desktop, Server
Popularity Among Programmers: Increasingly popular; used for Android applications
  • Less code-heavy than Java and other languages;
  • Relatively easy to adopt
  • Fully compatible with Java
Downsides: Fluctuating compilation speed; no static keyword in Kotlin
Degree of Use: Widely used; highly applicable
Annual Salary Projection: $136,000


6. PHP

PHP is an open-source programming language created in 1990. Many web developers find it essential to learn PHP, as this language is used to build more than 80% of websites on the Internet, including notable sites like Facebook and Yahoo.

Programmers mainly use PHP mainly to write server-side scripts. But developers can also use this language to write command-line scripts, and programmers with high-level PHP coding skills can also use it to develop desktop applications.

PHP is considered a relatively easy language to learn for beginning developers. PHP professionals have access to several dedicated online communities, making it easy to get support and answers to questions.

On average, PHP programmers earn average annual salaries of about $107,409.

Level: Beginner to intermediate
Skills Needed: Simple if you have a background in programming languages, but relatively easy to learn for newcomers
Platform: Cross-platform (desktop, mobile, web)
Popularity Among Programmers: Used by nearly 80% of all active websites, so it’s very popular with web developers
  • Open-source
  • Easy to develop and may be integrated with many different tools
  • Cost effective
  • Flexible with database connectivity
Downsides: Not very secure; not well-suited for large applications; poor error-handling; cannot support a large number of apps
Degree of Use: While it’s used by the vast majority of websites, its use is declining
Annual Salary Projection: $107,409


7. C#

Developed by Microsoft, C# rose to fame in the 2000s for supporting the concepts of object-oriented programming. It is one of the most used programming languages for the .NET framework. Anders Hejlsberg, the creator of C#, says the language is more like C++ than Java.

C# is best suited for applications on Windows, Android, and iOS, as it takes the help of the integrated development environment product, Microsoft Visual C++. C# is used on the back end of several popular websites like Bing, Dell, Visual Studio, and MarketWatch. C# developers earn around $111,760 per year.

Level: Intermediate
Skills Needed: A basic understanding of how to write code
Platform: Cross-platform, including mobile and enterprise software applications
Popularity Among Programmers: Relatively popular, but not as popular as Java (its closest rival)
  • Fast
  • Simple to use
  • Object-oriented
  • Scalable and updateable
  • Interoperable with other codes
  • Open source
  • Extensive library
Downsides: Less flexible, as it depends on Microsoft’s .Net framework; poor x-platform GUI
Degree of Use: Used by roughly one-third of all software developers, particularly relevant for Microsoft developers
Annual Salary Projection: $111,760

8. Swift

A few years ago, Swift made the top 10 in the monthly TIOBE Index ranking of popular programming languages. Apple developed Swift in 2014 for Linux and Mac applications.

An open-source programming language that is easy to learn, Swift supports almost everything from the programming language Objective-C. Swift requires fewer coding skills compared with other programming languages, and it can be used with IBM Swift Sandbox and IBM Bluemix. Swift is used in popular iOS apps like WordPress, Mozilla Firefox, SoundCloud, and even in the game Flappy Bird. Professionals who develop iOS applications take home average annual salaries of around $106,652.

Level: Beginner to intermediate
Skills Needed: Willingness to spend time reading tutorials (which are widely available); no prior experience with programming languages required
Platform: Mobile (Apple iOS apps, specifically)
Popularity Among Programmers: Gaining in popularity, especially among Apple iOS application developers
  • Relatively easy to learn
  • Clean syntax
  • Less code
  • Faster than comparable programming languages
  • Open source
Downsides: Still a young language; poor interoperability with third party tools; lacks support for earlier versions of iOS
Degree of Use: Used extensively for creating iOS apps used on the iPhone, iPad, and Apple Watch
Annual Salary Projection: $109,652

9. R

R is an open-source language that is essentially a different version of the S language. Much of the code that developers write for S runs on R without modification.

Applications built in R are used for processing statistics, including linear and nonlinear modeling, calculation, testing, visualization, and analysis. Applications coded using R can interface with a number of databases and process both structured and unstructured data.

R has a moderate learning curve and is not as easy for beginners to pick up as some other languages in this article. However, like other open-source programming languages, R boasts an active online community of developers, which is always a plus when learning new coding skills.

On average, R developers earn average annual salaries of about $90,940.

Level: Intermediate
Skills Needed: Easier if you already know Javascript or Python, but it’s recommended for people with a firm grasp of mathematics
Platform: Mainly desktop
Popularity Among Programmers: Not nearly as popular as it once was, mainly due to rival language Python’s soaring popularity
  • Open source
  • Great support for managing data
  • Wide variety of packages available
  • Cross-functional with Linux, Windows, and Mac OS
  • Ideal for machine learning applications
Downsides: Objects are stored in physical memory, which can strain resources; lacks basic security; slower than Matlab or Python
Degree of Use: Widely used for analytics
Annual Salary Projection: $90,940


10. Ruby

If you want to start with a language that is known for being relatively simple to learn, consider Ruby. Developed in the 1990s, it was designed to have a more human-friendly syntax while still being flexible from the standpoint of its object-oriented architecture that supports procedural and functional programming notation. A web-application framework that is implemented in Ruby is Ruby on Rails (“RoR”). Ruby developers tout it for being an easy language to write in and also for the relatively short learning time required. These attributes have led to a large community of Ruby developers and a growing interest in the language among beginning developers. The average salary for a Ruby developer is around $121,000 per year.

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Level: Beginner – Ruby and Ruby on Rails have evolved to become extremely popular for web developers.
Skills Needed: Problem-solving, abstract thinking (ability to visualize what application users want to see)
Platform: Web
Popularity Among Programmers: On the rise
    • Flexible

  • The syntax is considered easy to read and to write (no specialized “vocabulary” to get started)
  • Enforces good programming style


Degree of Use: Least broadly used
Annual Salary Projection: $121,070

11. C and C++

C is probably the oldest and popular programming language and is the root of other programming languages such as C#, Java, and JavaScript. C++ is an enhanced version of C. Many developers today skip learning C on its own, while others think learning C first provides a valuable foundation for C++ development. Both languages are widely used in computer science and programming.

C and C++ developers can make use of compilers for a wide variety of platforms, making applications developed in these languages largely transportable. Both C and C++ are considered high-performance languages. As such, they are widely used in developing applications where performance is a critical issue, such as client/server applications, commercial products like Firefox and Adobe, and video games. C and C++ developers earn an average of $118,366 each year.

Level: C – Intermediate to Advanced 

C++ – Beginner to Intermediate

Skills Needed: Problem-solving, basic computer knowledge. As C and C++ are geared toward low-level management of computer resources,  knowledge of computer functions such as memory management is beneficial.
Platform: Mobile, Desktop, Embedded
Popularity Among Programmers:
  • C – There has been a higher migration from C to C++
  • C++ – One of the world’s most popular languages
  • C – Used to learn the fundamentals of programming at the lowest (hardware) level
  • C++ – allows for a much higher “control” than other languages
  • C – Coding in C is stricter, not very beginner-friendly language, the steeper learning curve
  • C++ – A bit more challenging to pick up and become productive with than C (and even more so than Java)
Degree of Use:
  • C – One of the most widely used
  • C++ – Widely used
Annual Salary Projection: $118,366

12. Matlab

Matlab is a proprietary programming language owned by MathWorks and originally released in the mid-1980s. It is built specifically for use by scientists and engineers.

Programmers use Matlab to build machine learning and deep learning applications. Matlab-based programs enable users to analyze data, create algorithms, process images, and verify research.

Generally, Matlab is easier to learn than other programming languages on our list. MathWorks’ website has an extensive section dedicated to answering questions about Matlab.

The average Matlab developer takes home an average salary of $100,760 each year.

Level: Beginner
Skills Needed: Basic knowledge of programming is recommended, but not required
Platform: Mostly desktop
Popularity Among Programmers: Not as popular as Python (its closest rival), but its popularity is increasing for hardware engineering and running visualizations
  • Can be used to easily run and test algorithms
  • Easily debugged
  • Enables extensive data analysis and visualizations
  • Relatively simple to learn
Downsides: As an interpreted (vs. compiled) language, it’s relatively slow; installation files take a significant amount of space on the computer
Degree of Use: Not used extensively, outside of the science and research domains
Annual Salary Projection: $100,766


13. TypeScript

TypeScript is a newcomer to top programming language lists, but it’s making headway. It was developed in 2012 by Microsoft and is a typed version of JavaScript that is well suited for large code bases. TypeScript is used to create JavaScript-based projects with typing in both client-side and server-side development, making useful for catching errors and preventing systemic issues.

TypeScript was named “most adopted tech” in the 2021 State of JavaScript SurveyTypeScript developers typically earn an annual average of $75,199.

Level: Intermediate to Advanced
Skills Needed: Basic knowledge of JavaScript required
Platform: Web
Popularity Among Programmers: Rapidly gaining popularity among programmers, especially for large-scale programs.
  • Great for large-scale projects
  • It has the fastest growing GitHub community
  • Makes JavaScript development more efficient
Downsides: You need to know JavaScript first.
Degree of Use: Gaining heavy traction among web developers
Annual Salary Projection: $75,200


14. Scala

Scala is a general-purpose, type-safe Java virtual machine language that combines the best oop and functional programming languages into one special high language. Scala is ideal for reducing and removing bugs in large, complex applications. It supports both object-oriented and functional programming.

Programmers can use Scala for any task that they normally would use Java for. Scala is a complex language, but that complexity gives it a lot of flexibility. Companies that use Scala include Netflix, Twitter, and the New York Times.

Scala developers earn a yearly average of $127,005.

Level: Complex
Skills Needed: Basic knowledge of Java, C, C++, or Python recommended, but not required
Platform: Cross-platform
Popularity Among Programmers: Scala’s popularity has taken several hits, probably due to its complexity. It enjoys a good reputation in the fields of big data and machine learning.
  • Faster than Python
  • Ideal for data analytics
  • Highly functional
Downsides: ·       It’s very complex 

·       The SBT and compiler are clunky

·       Limited developer pool

Degree of Use: Extensive use in many companies’ data engineering infrastructure, especially data processing, web development, and distributed computing.
Annual Salary Projection: $127,005


15. SQL

SQL is a standard database query language. It is used to access and manipulate data in databases. SQL is a declarative language that specifies the desired results, but not the steps to achieve those results. SQL is a powerful tool for accessing and manipulating data, and it is the world’s most widely used database query language.

Benefits of SQL

  • SQL is a standard database query language that enables users to manipulate and query data in a database quickly.
  • SQL is widely used in many applications and environments, such as web applications, data warehouses, and e-commerce applications.
  • SQL provides many benefits over other database query languages, such as improved performance, better data integrity, and more accessible data manipulation.

Cons of SQL

  • If you are unfamiliar with programming or database concepts, SQL can be challenging to learn.
  • SQL can be slow compared to other languages, mainly when working with large databases.
  • And SQL is not well suited for certain types of tasks, such as complex mathematical calculations or machine learning.

16. HTML

HTML(HyperText Markup Language) is the standard language for creating web pages and applications. HTML is used to create web pages. You can use HTML to add images, links, and other types of content to your web page. HTML is a simple programming language; you don’t need to know much about it to create a basic web page.

Images and other objects, such as interactive forms, can be embedded within the produced page using HTML structures. It enables the creation of structured documents by indicating structural semantics for text elements including as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotations, and other objects. HTML elements are delineated by tags, which are written in angle brackets.

Benefits of HTML

  • Benefits of using HTML include creating well-structured, standards-compliant web pages that are easy to maintain and update.
  • HTML is also easy to learn and is a great starting point for those new to web development.
  • HTML is used to structure and present content on the web and is typically used alongside CSS and JavaScript.
  • Additionally, HTML5 provides better multimedia and interactive content support, making it a powerful tool for creating engaging web experiences.
  • HTML5 is the latest version and includes new features like video and audio elements, local storage, and 2D/3D graphics. HTML5 is designed to be more user-friendly and efficient than previous versions of HTML.

Cons of HTML

A few potential drawbacks exist to using HTML as a web development language.

  • First, because HTML is a markup language, it is not as expressive as a programming language like JavaScript or PHP, which means that complex web applications or pages can be more challenging to develop in HTML.
  • Additionally, HTML is not a very secure language, so web developers must carefully encode any user input to prevent security vulnerabilities properly.
  • Finally, HTML can be somewhat challenging to learn for newcomers, as it has a lot of different elements and syntax rules

17. CSS

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a style sheet language used to describe how a page that was produced in a markup language is presented. A style sheet, which is a set of rules for web browsers, can control an HTML or XML.

All HTML tags, including the text in the document’s body, headings, paragraphs, and other text elements, are styled using CSS. The display of grid components, table elements, and picture

Benefits of CSS

  • CSS is used to style all HTML tags, including the body of the document, headings, paragraphs, and other material. CSS can also be used to style how table components, grid elements, and images are displayed.
  • Web developers use CSS to create responsive and accessible websites. CSS can make it easier for web developers to create websites that look good on all devices, including mobile phones and tablets.
  • CSS can also help make websites more accessible to people with disabilities.
  • CSS is easy to learn and use. Many tutorials and resources are available online, and anyone can start using CSS to style their web pages.

Con of CSS

  • CSS can be challenging to debug. When there are errors in a CSS file, it can be difficult to track down the source of the problem.
  • And it can be time-consuming to write. CSS files can be large and complex, and it can take a lot of time to create and maintain them.

Overall, the CSS is a powerful tool that can be used to style web documents. However, it is vital to know the potential drawbacks before using it.

18. NoSQL

NoSQL databases are non-relational databases designed to provide high performance and scalability. And NoSQL databases are often used in big data applications, where data is distributed across many nodes.

The four key categories of NoSQL databases are as follows:

  • key-value stores,
  • columnar stores,
  • document stores,
  • And graph databases.

Benefits of NoSQL

  • NoSQL is a database system that does not use the traditional relational model.
  • NoSQL databases are often used for big data applications that need to scale quickly.
  • NoSQL databases can be faster and more scalable than relational databases.

Cons of NoSQL

  • NoSQL databases are generally less mature than SQL databases and, as such, may lack some of the features and functionality that SQL databases offer.
  • Additionally, because NoSQL databases are less standardized than SQL databases, it can be more challenging to find skilled personnel who can work with them.
  • And NoSQL databases may be less compatible with existing applications and infrastructure than SQL databases.

19. Rust

Rust is a programming language designed to be safe, concurrent, and practical. It is a systems programming language that runs blazingly fast, prevents segfaults, and guarantees thread safety. Rust is also memory-efficient: it uses minimal memory, making it ideal for embedded systems.

Benefits of Rust

  • Rust is a fast and efficient language used to create high-performance applications.
  • Rust is also a safe and reliable language, which makes it perfect for developing mission-critical software.
  • Additionally, Rust is easy to learn and use and has a great community of developers who are always willing to help.

Cons of Rust

While Rust has many features that make it an attractive language, there are some drawbacks to using it.

  • There needs to be more support or documentation available for other languages because it is a new language, making it difficult to learn and use Rust.
  • Additionally, Rust only supports some platforms, and it can be challenging to integrate with existing codebases.

20. Perl

Perl is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. Although Perl is not officially an acronym, various backronyms exist, including “Practical Extraction and Report Language.” Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions.

Perl is widely regarded as the ” Swiss Army knife” of programming languages because of its versatility and power. It is used for various tasks, including web development, network programming, system administration, and more.

Benefits of Perl

  • Perl is a powerful programming language with many features and applications. It is widely used in system administration, web development, network programming, and many other fields.
  • Perl is easy to learn, and its concise syntax makes it an excellent choice for beginners. It is also very versatile, allowing you to write programs in various styles.
  • Perl has excellent support for many databases, making it a good choice for database-driven applications. It also has excellent support for graphics and multimedia, making it a good choice for media-rich applications.

Cons of Perl

Although Perl is an interesting and feature-rich programming language, it also has some cons.

  • First of all, it is more challenging to learn than some other languages like Python, and it has a very steep learning curve and can confuse beginners.
  • Additionally, Perl is not as widely used as other languages, so there is not as much support available.
  • Finally, it can be pretty slow compared to some other languages.

Have a look at the video below that talks about the most trending and in-demand programming languages in the market.


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